Elmarie Louw-Kritzinger


Current publications and polemics attest to the on-going efforts to explain Evil and
death to post-modern man ‘acceptably’/scientifically? – the theodicy that has
already been grappled with in the ancient writings. The search for the origin of Evil
is one of the numerous facets in this virtually impossible undertaking. In ancient
times, a deeper meaning was attached to name-giving. The obvious starting point is
in the names given to the Evil in the Ancient Writings. Various names are used in
turn for the Evil One. Each name reflects an aspect of the Entity. However, it is
interesting to note that the names do link with one another. A further line of
tradition that is closely connected to the Two Spirits in the Zoroastrianism, is the
choice that every person must make between Good and Evil. Thus the Two Spirits
are placed within man and by his choice expanded into two cosmic powers. This
research on the ancient writings attempts to contribute to the ongoing unravelling
and wording of this burning question.


Theodicy; Proper names for the Evil; the choice between Good and Evil; Moderate Dualism; Zoroastrianism; Qumran Literature; New Testament (Revelation)

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.7833/109-0-123


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ISSN 2305-445X (online); ISSN 0254-1807 (print)

Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

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